History[ edit ] Before the rise of professional journalism in the early s and the conception of media ethicsnewspapers reflected the opinions of the publisher. Frequently, an area would be served by competing newspapers taking differing and often radical views by modern standards.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1. Published in final edited form as: Published online Jul The authors used Cision US, Inc.
The authors conducted a descriptive study to determine the frequency and proportion of stories containing specified tobacco topics, frames, sources, and action messages, and the valence of the coverage.
Television news can be leveraged by health communication professionals to increase awareness of underrepresented topics in tobacco control. It is also associated with prevalence of smoking among U. Prior research has examined how the media cover tobacco topics Caburnay et al.
In one example, Long and colleagues aimed to better understand how the media covered tobacco control issues from to by conducting a content analysis of national magazines, national and local television newscasts, and newspapers.
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Related to television coverage, they found that only 21 of television newscasts included stories where tobacco was central to the story. With a few exceptions, tobacco content analysis studies have not included television news coverage among the media channels sampled, and those that do include television tend to favor examining national network coverage Nelson et al.
Despite declining viewership for local television news in recent years, local television remains a top news source for Americans, with almost three out of four U. Our study addresses this gap in tobacco-related content analysis studies by creating a sampling frame of both local and national television news coverage of tobacco, and undertaking a descriptive content analysis of a nationally representative sample of that coverage, to describe the content and valence of television news coverage of tobacco control issues in the United States.
By including local television news coverage in the analysis, we attempt to identify underrepresented topics that may be levers for media advocacy at local and state levels, where much tobacco control policy is debated and enacted.
Method Objectives In this study, we aimed to create a nationally representative sample of local and national television news coverage of tobacco during the month period from October 1,to September 30, ; and to conduct an exploratory analysis using frequencies and proportions to describe the content of tobacco-related television news coverage by topic, message frame, exemplars sources quotedand efficacy action messages and resourcesand to characterize the valence of the news stories.
Sampling Frame To build two sampling frames one for local stories and one for national stories from which to draw a sample, we procured from Cision US, Inc.
Protobacco and antitobacco advertising were excluded from the sample in order to focus solely on the content of the newscasts themselves. In order to eliminate irrelevant stories, the search term smoking was included only when it was within 75 words of the terms FDA, hookah, restrictions, indoor, restaurants, bans, or bars.
Data were compiled using a mix of closed-captioned feeds, hand-logged monitoring notes, and visual recognition. For the local frame, designated market area was also provided. Each clip on the frame had a unique date, time, and channel combination, but it is nevertheless likely that there were repeated occurrences of the same story on each frame, since the same television story may be repeated multiple times throughout the day.
There was no attempt to unduplicate these multiple occurrences given that they reflect potential increased exposure of the same story to the viewing audience. The sampling strategies for the national and local sampling frames differed somewhat given the differing market penetrations of national versus local newscasts.
The two sampling strategies are subsequently described in detail. Sampling Local Television News Stories The basis for the stratification for sampling from the 60, local tobacco-related news stories was the designated market areas, which cover the continental U.
A designated market area is a region where the population can receive the same or similar television and radio station offerings. To capture a good geographic distribution of coverage from large and small markets, six strata were created and the designated market areas were assigned to one of the six strata so that roughly one sixth of the population was represented in each stratum, similar to methods used by Long and colleagues Using six strata permitted reasonable regional representation in all strata and reasonable homogeneity of market size within each stratum.
The six strata were further substratified by time of day, day of week, and time of year of the newscast. Within each of the six strata, two categories representing weekday Monday through Friday versus weekend Saturday and Sunday coverage were formed.
Because there were few tobacco-related news clips on weekends, the clips from this category were not substratified any further. These three seasons were crossed with two time periods during the day 4: Thus, each of the six geographic strata based on designated market areas had one weekend and six weekday substrata i.
For each of the six strata, clips were allocated proportionately to frame size to the seven substrata within each of the six designated market area strata see Appendix Aavailable as a supplemental online file. The stratification and substratification scheme was balanced with respect to market size, geographic representation and the temporal components of the tobacco-related stories.
For this frame, no geographic stratification was necessary since the market penetration was nationwide. Furthermore, given that there were so few national stories on the frame, it was deemed that any further stratification temporal or otherwise would lead to sample sizes that were too sparse per stratum.
Thus, a census of all national tobacco-related stories was taken.after the conflict started according to the media coverage of nine leading newspapers from United States, Europe, and Latin America.
Through quantitative content analysis, the researcher answered seven research questions and analyzed the framing, sources, and approaches used by the newspapers in the news coverage of the conflict. Between and in the United States, Muslims perpetrated percent of those attacks. We then searched for media coverage of each attack from U.S.-based print sources in LexisNexis Academic.
Brigitte L. Nacos et al.: Post-9/11 Terrorism Threats, News Coverage, and Public Perceptions in the United States public communication, mass media, and public opinion in the politics of counterterrorism.
C. Radio news stories are more timely and can be updated more frequently.
D. Radio news stories are more in-depth. E. Radio news provides better coverage of international affairs. Aetnaâ€™s Health Section provides in-depth news, analysis and perspectives on the changing health care landscape for consumers, employers and communities.
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