Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Furthermore I will be interpreting this short story and I will be going in-depth with the text to do these things and utilise the English skills and abilities I have been taught throughout my time of studying the English language. The mother of the child plays a less significant role in the story than the father and son.
The Way to the Italian Hotspots. Most of the people landing in an EU hotspot have long journeys behind them, during which they have met other, delocalized manifestations of the EU border, embodied by a variety of state and non-state actors. Here I will focus on the last leg of these journeys, the sea crossing, and, more specifically, on the sea crossing to Italy.
Indeed, the sea and the hotspots have something in common which marks a difference between them and the other spaces of the delocalized EU border regime. Previous stages of the migratory process take place in spaces of containment, in which the aim of delocalized EU migration and border policies—supported by non-state actors as well as by Crossing essay rettet state authorities of the relevant countries of transit or origin—is to prevent people from setting off for Europe.
The sea, instead, is a space in which such logic of containment goes along with that of reception. In countries of origin and transit, the logic of reception is either absent from delocalized EU migration and border policies, or it is clearly subordinated to the logic of containment.
At sea, instead, the logic of reception has a place of its own. It mainly takes shape in rescue operations carried out by both state and non-state actors.
Relevant activities include the first assistance and aid granted to the migrants found at sea, as well as the transfer of the rescued to the hotspots.
Thus, these people are funneled from the space of the sea into the European polity. The logic of containment, instead, manifests itself in at least three ways. First, in the intelligence and policing activities carried out by state Italian and supra-state EU authorities in international waters.
Such activities Crossing essay rettet at collecting information, arresting smugglers and destroying vessels, in order to disrupt criminal networks and thus prevent people from embarking on sea crossings.
Second, in the activities carried out by the state authorities of countries of departure, returning to the place of embarkation those migrants who are intercepted or rescued before they are found by European authorities or non-state search and rescue SAR actors.
Third, in the death of many migrants resulting from restrictive migration and border policies and practices, as well as from insufficient SAR efforts. The two logics coexisting in the space of the sea can also be found in the space of the hotspots.
The logic of reception operates there to select those who deserve protection and thus resident status, whereas the logic of containment is translated into the logic of forced removal, whose aim is to return the others, the illegalized. There is an important difference between the space of the hotspots and the space of the sea, however.
While the double logic of the hotspots unfolds in a uniform space, corresponding to just one territory, one state and one supra-state EU sovereignty, the double logic of the sea unfolds in a multiform, irregular and uneven space, in which not only are there different sovereignties and different territorial partitions, but these sovereignties and territorialities are also subject to crises and negotiations, as well as to twists of fate, resulting in a high degree of uncertainty about the outcomes of actions occurring in a given maritime territory.
Furthermore, like in the space of the hotspots, a plurality of state and non-state actors is involved.
The fact that such actors have different motivations, tasks, and modi operandi increases the complexity of the interaction between uncertain spatialities and the seemingly opposed logics of reception and containment, thus making the outcomes of such interaction highly unpredictable.
The sea is divided into territorial waters and high seasalso known as international waters. Territorial waters are part of the national territories, and therefore fall under the sovereignty, of coastal states.
International waters are divided into SAR regions, each one falling under the responsibility of a different coastal state. The actors operating on and across these territorial partitions are manifold: As a result, and because of the prohibition of refoulement and collective removal, people rescued in the Libyan SAR region are transferred to Italy—and they are the overwhelming majority of those arriving to Italy by sea.
However, if a boat in distress is spotted while still in Libyan territorial waters, the sovereignty principle requires that Libyan authorities are informed in the first place. Libyan authorities are then supposed to intervene in their national waters and return the migrants to a Libyan port.
Interestingly, two recent cases reveal that the above principles and customs may occasionally be subverted.
On April 29,for examplethe MRCC Rome received a distress call from a dinghy that was still in Libyan territorial waters, seven miles off Sabratha. The Italian Coast Guard contacted their Libyan counterpart first, then the nearest commercial vessel.
The latter soon reached the drifting vessel, which was now only four miles off Libyan coast. An estimated people were missing, while 26 were rescued by the cargo, brought to international waters and handed over to the Italian authorities awaiting them there.
Eventually, they were transferred to the Lampedusa hotspot. In the absence of official humanitarian corridors, an unofficial one was created. In this case, the logic of reception prevailed over that of containment, despite territorial sovereignty principles.
The contrary was the case on 7 June, when Libyan authorities were alerted by the Italian Coast Guard about a vessel which was heading northwards but was still in Libyan waters.
Different vessels converged from north and south towards the migrant boat, which continued its journey and left Libyan territorial waters.Engelsk Essay Section A -Focus on attitudes to race in Obama’s America 1.
Give an outline of the different attitudes to the situation of African Americans presented in text 1, 2 and 3. Jugend Rettet is one of the six out of nine NGOs which refused to sign a new code of conduct by the Italian government covering migrant rescues in the Mediterranean.
The prosecutor alleged that there were "contacts, meetings and understandings" between the boat's crew and the smugglers.
When the father starts crossing the river alone he takes it slow and makes sure every step he takes is secure. That could be a symbol of his relationship to his son, and that he has to take it slow to obtain his son’s trust after the divorce or separation.
We will write a custom essay sample on “Crossing” by Mark Slouka specifically. 0 Down votes, mark as not useful. Philo I. Uploaded by Markus Abiog. HD-Filme zum kostenlosen Download auf den One-Klick-Hostern schwenkreis.com und schwenkreis.com The next spacecraft set to land on Mars is bringing its own communications team.
InSight, a lander scheduled to touch down on the Red Planet on November 26, is accompanied by a pair of briefcase.