Industrial Relations 20 Industrial Relations is fundamentally concerned with understanding the nature of the employment relationship and the contextual environment within which it operates. An understanding of Industrial Relations recognises distinct interests within the workplace and explores how these differing interests are mobilised and regulated. Exam Integrated Marketing Communications 20 This module is concerned with the concepts and uses of advertising and promotion in an integrated marketing communications IMC context.
The four basic elements in a control system: We select a specific characteristic because a correlation exists between it and how the system is performing.
The characteristic can be the output of the system during any stage of processing or it may be a condition that is the result of the system. For example, it may be the heat energy produced by the furnace or Management function behaviour assignment temperature in the room which has changed because of the heat generated by the furnace.
In an elementary school system, the hours a teacher works or the gain in knowledge demonstrated by the students on a national examination are examples of characteristics that may be selected for measurement, or control.
The second element of control, the sensor, is a means for measuring the characteristic or condition. For example, in a home heating system this device would be the thermostat, and in a quality-control system this measurement might be performed by a visual inspection of the product.
The third element of control, the comparatordetermines the need for correction by comparing what is occurring with what has been planned. Some deviation from the plan is usual and expected, but when variations are beyond those considered acceptable, corrective action is required.
It involves a sort of preventative action which indicates that good control is being achieved. The fourth element of control, the activator, is the corrective action taken to return the system to its expected output.
The actual person, device, or method used to direct corrective inputs into the operating system may take a variety of forms. It may be a hydraulic controller positioned by a solenoid or electric motor in response to an electronic error signal, an employee directed to rework the parts that failed to pass quality inspection, or a school principal who decides to buy additional books to provide for an increased number of students.
As long as a plan is performed within allowable limits, corrective action is not necessary; however, this seldom occurs in practice. To illustrate how information flow facilitates control, let us review the elements of control in the context of information.
Therefore, the choice of the controlled item and appropriate information about it is extremely important. There should be a direct correlation between the controlled item and the system's operation.
In other words, control of the selected characteristic should have a direct relationship to the goal or objective of the system. Sensor[ edit ] After the characteristic is sensed, or measured, information pertinent to control is fed back.
Exactly what information needs to be transmitted and also the language that will best facilitate the communication process and reduce the possibility of distortion in transmission must be carefully considered. Information that is to be compared with the standard, or plan, should be expressed in the same terms or language as in the original plan to facilitate decision making.
Using machine methods computers may require extensive translation of the information. Since optimal languages for computation and for human review are not always the same, the relative ease of translation may be a significant factor in selecting the units of measurement or the language unit in the sensing element.
In many instances, the measurement may be sampled rather than providing a complete and continuous feedback of information about the operation. A sampling procedure suggests measuring some segment or portion of the operation that will represent the total.
Regulations and laws provide a more formal collection of information for society. Social norms change, but very slowly.
In contrast, the standards outlined by a formal law can be changed from one day to the next through revision, discontinuation, or replacement by another. Information about deviant behavior becomes the basis for controlling social activity.
Output information is compared with the standard or norm and significant deviations are noted. In an industrial example, frequency distribution a tabulation of the number of times a given characteristic occurs within the sample of products being checked may be used to show the average quality, the spread, and the comparison of output with a standard.
If there is a significant and uncorrectable difference between output and plan, the system is "out of control.
Either the objectives must be reevaluated or the system redesigned to add new capacity or capability. For example, the traffic in drugs has been increasing in some cities at an alarming rate. The citizens must decide whether to revise the police system so as to regain control, or whether to modify the law to reflect a different norm of acceptable behavior.This TiddlyWiki contains the following tiddlers: /Users/pete/src/schwenkreis.com $:/config/DefaultSidebarTab $:/config/Navigation.
A listing of psychological research being conducted online.
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