The importance of density salinity and temperature in the study of oceanography

Climate Science — stefan 23 March The North Atlantic between Newfoundland and Ireland is practically the only region of the world that has defied global warming and even cooled.

The importance of density salinity and temperature in the study of oceanography

Ocean current Wind blowing over the surface of the sea causes friction at the interface between air and sea.

Not only does this cause waves to form but it also makes the surface seawater move in the same direction as the wind. Although winds are variable, in any one place they predominantly blow from a single direction and thus a surface current can be formed.

Westerly winds are most frequent in the mid-latitudes while easterlies dominate the tropics. There are five main gyres in the world's oceans: Other smaller gyres are found in lesser seas and a single gyre flows around Antarctica. These gyres have followed the same routes for millennia, guided by the topography of the land, the wind direction and the Coriolis effect.

The surface currents flow in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The water moving away from the equator is warm, and that flowing in the reverse direction has lost most of its heat.

These currents tend to moderate the Earth's climate, cooling the equatorial region and warming regions at higher latitudes. A main deep ocean current flows through all the world's oceans and is known as the thermohaline circulation or global conveyor belt.

This movement is slow and is driven by differences in density of the water caused by variations in salinity and temperature. Both these factors make it denser, and the water sinks. From the deep sea near Greenland, such water flows southwards between the continental landmasses on either side of the Atlantic.

When it reaches the Antarctic, it is joined by further masses of cold, sinking water and flows eastwards. It then splits into two streams that move northwards into the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Here it is gradually warmed, becomes less dense, rises towards the surface and loops back on itself.

Some flows back into the Atlantic. It takes a thousand years for this circulation pattern to be completed. When waves meet a shore at an angle, a longshore current is created as water is pushed along parallel to the coastline. The water swirls up onto the beach at right angles to the approaching waves but drains away straight down the slope under the effect of gravity.

The larger the breaking waves, the longer the beach and the more oblique the wave approach, the stronger is the longshore current. It may occur at a gap in a sandbar or near a man-made structure such as a groyne.

The importance of density salinity and temperature in the study of oceanography

This cold water is often rich in nutrients and creates blooms of phytoplankton and a great increase in the productivity of the sea.

Tide High tides blue at the nearest and furthest points of the Earth from the Moon Tides are the regular rise and fall in water level experienced by seas and oceans in response to the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the effects of the Earth's rotation. During each tidal cycle, at any given place the water rises to a maximum height known as "high tide" before ebbing away again to the minimum "low tide" level.An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences.

Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and .

View program details for SPIE Remote Sensing conference on Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions WIND CHILL FACTOR T he perceived decrease in air temperature felt by the body on exposed skin due to the flow of air. Wind chill numbers are always lower than the air temperature for values where the formula is valid.

You cannot have a windchill factor when the temperature is above 50˚F. WIND CHILL INDEX The calculation of temperature . July Temperature Recovers Slightly from Previous Free-Fall. NOTE: This is the sixteenth monthly update with our new Version dataset.

Differences versus the old Version dataset are discussed we are now at “beta5” for Version 6, and the paper describing the methodology is still in peer review. Perhaps the last great unexplored frontier on earth, the oceans reveal major new revelations as detected by scientists aboard the space shuttle and submerged to the depths of the "middle ocean" to view rare life forms.

Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water.

What is Seawater? by Randy Holmes-Farley -